Temperature, is defined as the energy contained in the movement of atomic particles. Basically, how fast the little atoms that make up every perceivable object in this universe are moving. The colder something is, the less these atoms are moving, hence solid ice when water is frozen. The hotter something gets, the more these atoms move, and we end up with gases, like water vapor. While most people use the Fahrenheit or Celsius measurements to measure heat, scientists use a different scale called kelvin. The intervals of Kelvin are sized the same way as those of celsius except are 273.15 degrees lower because in this scale, 0 is absolute zero. Absolute zero is the theoretical phenomenon that would occur if an object's atoms were cooled to the point where there was absolutely no movement in them. While scientists have never reached it yet, Wolfgang Ketterle, a German physicist, led a team of researchers in 2003 that cooled sodium atoms to 450 picokelvins. Written out that would be .00000000045 kelvin, less than one billionth of 1 degree. This research has led to the discovery of new forms of matter such as Bose-Einstein condensates which form at extremely cold temperatures and have zero viscosity, meaning they are as slippery as physically possible. To show how cold that really is, take space, an empty void filled with nothing but photons blasting off from other stars. Space lies at -451.81 degrees Fahrenheit (-270.45 degrees celsius). In Kelvin, space in 2.7 degrees, meaning that space itself is warmer than the temperatures required to obtain absolute zero.